Chemistry of Metals in Aqueous Systems 2: Precipitation and Dissolution Reactions.
A Molecular-Level Picture of an Elementary Reaction and the Factors that Affect Its Rate / movavi photo editor full version Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate Constants / The Kinetics of Some Important Categories of Environmental Chemical Reactions / Kinetics of Elementary Chemical Reactions / Reaction Reversibility and the Definition.
Introduction / The Dissociation of Water; Kw / The Structure of Acids and Bases / Strong and Weak Acids, Ka, and Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs / A Brief Diversion: The Structure of Some Important Organic Acids and Bases / Combining Acidity Reactions and the Definition.
Chemical Reactivity, Reactions, and Equilibrium.Reaction Kinetics and the Kinetics-Based Interpretation of Equilibrium.Adsorption Reactions, introduction / Two Views of the Interface and Adsorption Equilibrium / Quantitative Representations of Adsorption Equilibrium: The Adsorption Isotherm / Modeling Adsorption with Visual Minteq / Adsorption of Ions in the Presence of a Surface Electrical Potential / Modeling Surface-Adsorbate Electrical Interactions.Introduction / The Computer Algorithm for Solving a Simple Acid/Base Problem / Systems in Which the Equilibrium Activities of One or More Species Are Known / Using Chemical Equilibrium Software to Develop log.Appendix B: List of Important Equations.
C -pe Diagrams / Summary of Some Key Similarities between Acid/Base and Redox Systems / Redox Reactions Involving Exchange of Both Electrons and Protons / Computing Equilibrium Speciation in Redox Systems / Modeling Redox Reactions with Visual Minteq / Oxidation and Reduction of Water.
Redox Chemistry, introduction / Determining Oxidation Numbers / Balancing Redox Reactions / Redox Half-Reactions / The Activity of Free Electrons; Equilibrium Constants for Redox Half-Reactions / Definition of e o and peo / Computing pe from Species Activities: The Nernst Equation / Combining Redox Reactions.
TOT, h Equation, graphical Solutions for Sets of Simultaneous Equations / Using log CpH Diagrams to Solve Weak Acid/Base Problems / The Mass Balance on H (the.
Titrations and Buffers, introduction / Reactions Occurring during a Titration: Qualitative Considerations / Quantitative Interpretation of Titration Data / Using Visual Minteq to Simulate Titrations / Titrations with Weak Acids or Bases / The Effect of the Acidity of Water on Titration Curves / Titration.
TOT, h Equation and Proton Condition) / Defining the Composition of the System: Components, Species, and the System Tableau / Expressing Input and Equilibrium Concentrations in Terms of Components; Component Mass Balances / Identifying Dominant Species / Comparison of Approaches for Solving Acid/Base Problems.
Introduction / Formation of Solids Containing Metal Ions / The Chemical Activity of Pure Solids / The Solubility Product / Precipitation of Solids Other than Hydroxides / Formation of Nonhydroxo Complexes in Systems with Solids / Adding New Solids to the Visual Minteq Database.Concepts in Aquatic Chemistry, introduction / The Structure of Water Molecules and Interactions among Them / The Behavior of Solutes in Water; Dissolution of Salts / Common Approaches for Expressing Concentrations in Environmental Chemistry.Software for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems.Overview / Characterizing Chemical Reactivity / Predicting Activity Coefficients from Knowledge of the Solution Composition / The Activity as an Intensive Property; The Activity of Solids Dispersed in Water / Models of Chemical Equilibrium / Effect of Temperature on the Equilibrium Constant / Combining Chemical.Acids and Bases, Part 1: Acid/Base Speciation and Exact Solutions to Acid/Base Problems.Introduction / Potential Energy, Potentials, and Forces / Overview of Potential and Potential Energy in Chemical Systems / Entropy and Gibbs Energy / The Chemical Potential and Its Use to Predict Chemical Change / Other Molar Thermodynamic Quantities / Quantifying Gi, Hi, and.Chemistry of Metals in Aqueous Systems 1: Solution-Phase Reactions.Introduction / Metal Oxidation States / Formation and Structure of Metal Complexes / Complexes with Hydroxide Ions / log.Potentials, Energy, and Forces: Interpreting Changes in Physical/Chemical Systems.Acids and Bases, Part 2: Use of log C-pH Diagrams and the.C -pH Diagrams for Dissolved Metals / Complexes with Ligands Other than Water and Hydroxide / Mixed Ligand Complexes and Chelating Agents / Metal Speciation in Systems Containing Complexing Ligands / Metal Ion Buffers / Predominance Area Diagrams / Summary.Gas/Liquid Equilibrium, introduction / Basic Concepts and Terminology for Gas/Liquid Equilibrium / Effect of Gas/Liquid Equilibration on Gas-Phase Composition / Factors Affecting Volatility and Henry's Constant / Henry's Law and Aqueous-Phase Speciation / The pH of Solutions in Equilibrium with Acidic or Basic Gases.C -pH Diagrams / Modifying the Component and Species Databases in Visual Minteq / Summary.Appendix A: Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants.